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quotation marks

Always use smart quotes (“”), not dumb quotes (“).

Quotations are used to enclose direct quotations, names of presentations, lectures, speeches, titles of songs, poems, short stories and chapters. Never use quotation marks around words without attribution to who said it. “Leaders don’t follow,” he said. As she walked, she looked and said, “Joe said ‘I don’t want to disturb anything.’”

See also titles of works.

In quote usage, the comma comes before the closed quote marks.

Course names are capitalized and never in quotation marks or italics. Freshmen must take SOC 100 Introduction to Sociology to begin the program.

Semicolons are placed outside quotation marks. Chris said he “exhausted all of his options”; yet he still persevered.

Colons are placed outside of quotation marks.

Question marks, and all other punctuation, are placed inside or outside quotation marks depending on their use in the sentence. “What was that?” he said. Are you going to the lecture, “Changing the Times”?

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